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土地市场化路在何方:基于制度变迁的视角(黄砺)

时间:2013-09-12 21:59来源:未知 作者:黄砺 点击:
【摘要】在中国以市场化为取向的改革过程中,土地要素的市场化进程不仅滞后于产品市场的市场化进程,更是严重滞后于资本、劳动力等其他要素资源的市场化进程。本文以此为研究切入点,运用制度变迁理论较为系统地分析了土地市场化进程严重滞后的原因。通过对相关文献的梳理,本文发现由于“诺斯悖论”的存在,政府在土地市场化进程中所需承担的制度变迁成本限制了政府的制度创新行为,从而使得土地市场化进程步履维艰。而政府在土地市场化进程中所需承担的制度变迁成本主要来自耕地保护和土地财政方面的压力,通过对2003~2008年23个省(市、自治区)的面板数据的实证分析,发现地方政府的“土地财政”模式严重阻滞了土地市场化进程,中央政府的耕地保护政策对于土地市场化的影响十分有限。本文继而研究发现在“土地财政”模式等相关制度安排下,地方政府不仅无法承担起制度变迁的“第一行动集团”角色,其具体行为模式还会使得土地市场化改革面临着更大的阻力。最后,本文认为中国土地市场化进程的根本出路在于由强制性制度变迁向诱致性制度变迁转换,而这能否实现将主要取决于微观土地市场主体的自身努力程度。
【关键词】土地市场化;制度变迁;诺斯悖论;微观土地市场主体
Which Way We Should Take to Boost Land Marketization: Based on Perspectives of Institutional Change
Abstract: In China’s market-oriented reform, marketization of land elements severely lags behind that of product market and that of other elements resources like capital and labor. With this an entry point, the paper analyzes in a systematic manner the reasons that China’s land marketization falls far behind using the theory of institutional change. By reviewing related articles extant, the paper discovers that because of North Paradox, institutional change costs the government bears restrict its institutional innovations, therefore impeding marketization process of land. And institutional change costs mainly come from pressure for arable land protection and land finance. Through an empirical analysis of panel data of 23 provinces (cities, monotonous regions) from 2003 to 2008, it is found that “land finance” of local governments seriously jeopardizes land marketization while arable land protection policy of the central government has a quite limited influence. This paper then reveals that under such institutional arrangement as “land finance” model, local governments cannot assume the role of “primary action group” in institutional change, but instead their behavior patterns would further thwart the reform of land marketization. In the end, the paper believes the fundament solution for China’s land marketization lies in the shift from compulsory to induced institutional change, and the successful shift hinges on efforts of land market players at the micro-level.
Key words: Land Marketization; Institutional Change;  North Paradox; Micro Land Market Participants
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土地市场化路在何方:基于制度变迁的视角

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